Map of Andhra Pradesh
Location of Andhra Pradesh (marked in red) in India
Nickname(s): Rice Bowl of India , Egg bowl of Asia
1. October 1953; 61 years ago (first established)
2. November 1956; 58 years ago (re-organised for 1st time).
3. 2nd June 2014; re-organised for 2nd time)
Hyderabad - 2024
Largest city - Visakhapatnam
• Total - 160,205 km2 (61,855 sq mi)
Area rank – 8th
• Total - 49,386,799
• Rank – 10th
• Density - 308/km2 (800/sq mi)
Demonym - Andhrite
UN/LOCODE - AP
Vehicle registration - AP
Coastline - 972 kilometres (604 mi)
Literacy Rate - 67.41%
Website - AP State Portal
^† The Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 states that Hyderabad is joint capital of both Telangana and Andhra Pradesh states for a period of time not exceeding 10 years. A new capital is planned to be developed between Guntur and Vijaywada.
Symbols of Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India, situated on the country's southeastern coast. The state is the eighth largest state inIndia covering an area of 160,205 km2 (61,855 sq mi). As per 2011 census of India, the state is tenth largest by population with 49,386,799 inhabitants. In accordance with the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014, Hyderabad will remain the de jure capital of both Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states for a period of time not exceeding 10 years. The new riverfront Andhra Pradesh Capital City, also known as Amaravati is developed by the Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority (CRDA) in between Vijayawada city and Guntur City.
The state has the second longest coastline of 972 km (604 mi) among all the states of India, second only to Gujarat. It borders Telangana in the northwest, Chhattisgarh in the north, Odisha in the northeast, Karnataka in the west, Tamil Nadu in the south and the water body of Bay of Bengal in the east. A small enclave of 30 km2 (12 sq mi) of Yanam, a district ofPunducherry, lies south of Kakinada in the Godavari delta to the northeast of the state.
There are two regions in the state namely Coastal Andhra andRayalaseema. These two regions comprises 13 districts, with 9 in Coastal Andhra and 4 in Rayalaseema. Visakhapatnam is the largest city and a commercial hub of the state with a GDP of $26 billion followed byVijayawada with a GDP of $3 billion. There are a total of 28 cities with a population of one lakh and above. While, Visakhapatnam and Vijayawada are the million plus cities.
The Early Satavahanas ruled Andhra. The puranas refer to Satavahanas as Andhra Bhrityas. The Purāṇas list 30 Andhra rulers. Many are known from their coins and inscriptions as well. Satavahanas made Amaravati as their capital.
Simuka (c. 230–207 BCE) After becoming independent around 230 BCE,Simuka, the founder of the dynasty, conquered the present-dayMaharashtra and parts of Madhya Pradesh (including Malwa). He was succeeded by his brother Kanha (or Krishna) (r. 207–189 BCE), who further extended his state to the present day Andhra Pradesh. Later, Simuka madeSrikakulam his capital.
Satakarni (c. 180–124 BCE)
His successor Sātakarnī I was the sixth ruler of the Satavahana. He is said to have ruled for 56 years. The Mauryans extended their rule over Andhra in the fourth century BCE. With the fall of the Maurya Empire in the third century BCE, the Satavahanas became independent.
Andhra Ikshvakus (Sanskrit इक्ष्वाकु, Telugu ఇక్ష్వాకులు) were one of the earliest recorded ruling dynasties of the Guntur-Krishna regions of Andhra Pradesh.They ruled the eastern Andhra country along the Krishna river during the later half of the second century CE. Puranas called Andhra Ikshvakus Shri Parvatiya Andhras. Their capital was Vijayapuri (Nagarjunakonda). It is a strong common belief among some historians that Andhra Ikshvakus were related to the mythological Ikshvakus, while some believe Andhra Ikshvakus seem to be a local tribe who adopted the title.
Archaeological evidence has suggested that the Andhra Ikshvakus immediately succeeded the Satavahanas in the Krishna river valley. Ikshvakus have left inscriptions at Nagarjunakonda, Jaggayyapeta, Amaravati and Bhattiprolu.
During third century AD, there was utter political and military confusion in the coastal Andhra due to the invasion of the Abhiras and their allies on the last Ikshvaku remnants and the rise of the Brihatphalayanas, the Anandagotras and the Salankayanas on the other. Simha Varma of the Manchikallu stone inscription establishes the independent rule of the Pallavas in parts of the Krishna valley of Andhra Pradesh.
During the reign of Maharaja Sivaskanda Varma of the Mayidavolu, Hirahadagalli, the early Pallavas became dominant power in the first quarter of the fourth century AD Sivaskanda Varma was the first great ruler of the early Pallavas. He extended his dominions from the Krishna in the north to the south Pennar in the south and to theBellary district in the West. He performed the Aswamedha and other Vedic sacrifices.
Most of the Pallava Prakrit and Sanskrit charters from the southern Andhra country intimately connects them with the history of southern Andhra. The influence of the Pallavas was still felt by Andhra till it was swept by the Western Chalukyan invasion led by Pulakesin II in the first quarter of the seventh century AD. The Pallavas were not a recognized political power before the 2nd century AD. Pallavas were originally executive officers under the Satavahana kings.
Since the fall of the Ikshvakus, the Vishnukundins were the first great dynasty, which held sway way over the entire Andhra country including Kalinga and parts of Telangana and played an important and imperial role in the history of Deccan during the fifth and sixth century AD.
The Salankayanas were an ancient dynasty that ruled the Andhra region between Godavari and Krishna with their capital as Vengi, modern Pedavegi 12 km from Eluru in West Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh, India's from 300 to 440 AD. They were Brahmins and their name is derived from their symbol and gotra name, which stood for Nandi (the bull ofShiva).
The Chola dynasty ruled Andhra during the period of 1010–1200. The Chola territories stretched from the islands of the Maldives in the south to as far north as the banks of the Godavari River in Andhra Pradesh.
The Reddy Kingdom (1325–1448 CE) was established in present day coastal Andhra Pradesh by Prolaya Vema Reddi in the early fourteenth century. The region that was ruled by this dynasty spanned present day coastal andhra from Vishakapatnam in the north to Kanchipuram in the south. Prolaya Vema Reddi was part of the confederation of states that started a movement against the invading Turkic Muslim armies of the Delhi Sultanate in 1323 CE and succeeded in repulsing them from Warangal. Today Reddys is a social group or caste of India, predominantly inhabiting the states ofTelangana and Andhra Pradesh.
The Vijayanagara Empire was an empire originated South India, in the Deccan Plateau region in the early fourteenth century. It was established in 1336 by Harihara Raya I and his brother Bukka Raya I of Sangama Dynasty. The empire rose to prominence as a culmination of attempts by the southern powers to ward off Islamic invasions by the end of the thirteenth century. It lasted until 1646 although its power declined after a major military defeat in 1565 to theDeccan sultanates. The empire is named after its capital city of Vijayanagara, whose ruins surround present day Hampi, now a World Heritage Site in Karnataka, India. The writings of medieval European travelers such as Domingo Paes,Fernão Nunes and Niccolò Da Conti, and the literature in local languages provide crucial information about its history. Archaeological excavations at Vijayanagara have revealed the empire's power and wealth. The region of Rayalaseema in the present day Andhra Pradesh got its name from the rulers of this dynasty whose name generally ended with raya, meaning raya ruled region (seema).
The empire's legacy includes many monuments spread over South India, the best known of which is the group at Hampi. The Vijayanagara emipre's time is considered as the golden era of South India in many aspects by historian be it prosperity, welfare, wealth, military might and nurturing of arts. The previous temple building traditions in South India came together in the Vijayanagara Architecture style. The mingling of all faiths and vernaculars inspired architectural innovation of Hindutemple construction, first in the Deccan and later in the Dravidian idioms using the local granite. Efficient administration and vigorous overseas trade brought new technologies such as water management systems for irrigation. The empire's patronage enabled fine arts and literature to reach new heights in Kannada, Telugu, Tamil and Sanskrit, while Carnatic music evolved into its current form. The Vijayanagara Empire created an epoch in South Indian history that transcended regionalism by promoting Hinduism as a unifying factor.
Inspired by their success, the Vijayanagara Empire, one of the greatest empires in the history of Andhra Pradesh and India, was founded by Harihara and Bukka, who served as treasury officers of the Kakatiyas of Warangal. In 1347 CE, an independent Muslim state, the Bahmani Sultanate, was established in south India by Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah in a revolt against the Delhi Sultanate. The Qutb Shahi dynasty held sway over the Andhra country for about two hundred years from the early part of the sixteenth century to the end of the seventeenth century.
In Colonial India, Northern Circars became part of the British Madras Presidency. Eventually this region emerged as theCoastal Andhra region. Later the Nizam rulers of Hyderabad ceded five territories to the British which eventually emerged as Rayalaseema region. The Nizams retained control of the interior provinces as the princely state of Hyderabad, acknowledging British rule in return for local autonomy. However, Komaram Bheem, a tribal leader, started his fight against the erstwhile Asaf Jahi Dynasty for the liberation of Hyderabad State. Meanwhile, the French occupied Yanam, in the Godavari delta, and (save for periods of British control) would hold it until 1954.In 1947 Vizianagaram was the largest Hindu Princely state in Andhra Pradesh.
India became independent from the United Kingdom in 1947. The Nizam wanted to retain the independence of the Princely Hyderabad State from India, but the people of the region launched a movement to join the Indian Union. The state of Hyderabad was forcibly joined to the Republic of India with Operation Polo in 1948.
In an effort to gain an independent state based on linguistic differences and to protect the interests of the Telugu-speaking people of Madras State, Potti Sreeramulu fasted until death in 1952. As Madras became a bone of contention, in 1949 a JVP committee report stated "Andhra Province could be formed provided the Andhras give up their claim on the city of Madras (now Chennai)". After Potti Sreeramulu's death, the Telugu-speaking areas, i.e. Andhra State, was carved out of Madras State on 1 October 1953, with Kurnool as its capital city.
On the basis of a gentlemen's agreement of 1 November 1956, the States Reorganisation Act formed Andhra Pradesh by merging Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking areas of the already existing Hyderabad State. Hyderabad was made the capital of the new state. The Marathi-speaking areas of Hyderabad State merged withBombay State and the Kannada-speaking areas were merged with Mysore State.
Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014
In February 2014, the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 bill was passed by theParliament of India for the formation of Telangana state comprising ten districts.]Hyderabad will remain as a joint capital for 10 years for both Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. The new state of Telangana came into existence on 2 June 2014 after approval from the President of India. The formation of a new state namedTelangana from Andhra Pradesh is not considered an amendment to the Constitution of India per article 3 and 4 of that document.
Andhra Pradesh is administratively divided into twenty-three districts,which are further subdivided into mandals and municipalities. The largest municipalities are municipal corporations (nagar nigam) and there are sixteen such municipalities in Andhra Pradesh. Second in size are regular municipalities or nagar palika, as of 2001 there were fifty-two nagar palika in Andhra Pradesh.
Geography and climate
Geographically, Andhra Pradesh is composed of most of the eastern half of the Deccan plateau and the plains to the east of the Eastern Ghats. Andhra Pradesh is divided into three regions. The northern part of the plateau is the Telangana region and the southern part is known as Rayalaseema. These two regions are separated by the River Krishna. The third region is Coastal Andhra.The plains to the east of Eastern Ghats form the Eastern coastal plains. The Eastern Ghats are discontinuous and individual sections have local names. The Kadapa Basin formed by two arching branches of the Eastern Ghats is a mineral-rich area. The coastal plains are for the most part delta regions formed by the Godavari, Krishna, and Penner rivers. The Eastern Ghats are a major dividing line in the state's geography. The Ghats become more pronounced towards the south and extreme north of the coast. The Eastern Ghat region is home to dense tropical forests, while the vegetation becomes sparse as the Ghats give way to the Deccan Plateau, where shrub vegetation is more common. Most of the coastal plains are put to intense agricultural use. The west and southwest parts of Andhra Pradesh have semi-arid conditions.It is the Buckingham Canalwhich connects Andhra Pradesh with Tamilnadu.
The climate of Andhra Pradesh varies considerably, depending on the geographical region. Monsoons play a major role in determining the climate of the state. Summers last from March to June. In the coastal plain, the summer temperatures are generally higher than the rest of the state, with temperature ranging between 20 to 41 °C (68 to 106 °F).
July to September is the seasons for tropical rains in Andhra Pradesh. The state receives heavy rainfall from Southwest Monsoon during these months. About one third of the total rainfall in Andhra Pradesh is brought by the Northeast Monsoon. October and November see low-pressure systems and tropical cyclones form in the Bay of Bengal which, along with the Northeast Monsoon, bring rains to the southern and coastal regions of the state. November, December, January, and February are the winter months in Andhra Pradesh. Since the state has a long coastal belt the winters are not very cold. The range of winter temperature is generally 12 to 30 °C (54 to 86 °F).
Hyderabad is the capital and, along with the adjoining twin city Secunderabad, is the largest city in the state.Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh's main seaport, is the second largest city and is home to the Indian Navy's Eastern Naval Command. Due to its location and proximity to major rail and road routes, Vijayawada is a major trading center and is the third largest city of the state, Tirupati is the fourth largest city of the state, followed by Rajamundry, Guntur, Nellore, Warangal, and Kakinada. Other important places of the state are Kadapa, Srikakulam, and Kurnool.
Telugu is the official language of the state and is spoken by 83.88% of the population, followed by Urdu (8.63%) and Banjara (8.5%). Other linguistic minority groups are speakers of Hindi (3.23%) and Tamil (1.01%). Languages spoken in Andhra Pradesh by less than 1% of the population are Kannada (0.80%), Marathi (0.74%), and Oriya (0.44%). Languages spoken by less than 0.2% of the population include Malayalam (0.08%), Gujarati (0.06%), Bengali (0.05%), Gorkhali/Nepali (0.03%), Punjabi (0.01%) and Sindhi (0.01%).
The main ethnic group of Andhra Pradesh is the Telugu people, who represent the confluence of Indo-aryan and Dravidian cultures as the land is a melting pot for millenniums].
Andhra Pradesh ranks tenth compared to all Indian states in the Human Development Index scoreS with a score of 0.416. The National Council of Applied Economic Research district analysis in 2001 reveals that Khammam, Krishna, West Godavari, Chittoor, and Medak are the five districts in rural AP with the highest Human Development Index scores in ascending order.
The data show that the poor make up 16.3% of the total population in rural AP, and expenditure on consumption is around 13.5% of the total consumption expenditure. The female literacy rate is 0.66 compared to male literacy rate in rural AP. The district-wise variations for poverty ratio are high and low for the ratio of female/male literacy rate. The gender gap in illiteracy is one of the issues being addressed by the Asmita Resource Centre for Women, an Indian NGO based in Andhra Pradesh that works to better the socio-economic status of women and communities in India.
Hinduism is the dominant religion with about nearly 90% of the population identifying as Hindu.The state is home to Hindu saints of all castes. An important figure is Saint Yogi Sri Potuluri Virabrahmendra Swami. He was born in the Vishwabrahmin (goldsmith) caste and had Brahmin and Dalit disciples. Fisherman Raghu was a Shudra saint. Saint Kakkayya was a chura (sweeper) Harijan saint.
Several important Hindu modern-day saints are from Andhra Pradesh. These include Sri Sathya Sai Baba, Sri Sivabala Yogi Maharaj who advocates religious unity in worship; Swami Sundara Chaitanyanandaji of the Aurobindo Mission; and Brahmarshi Subhash Patri, founder of the pyramid spiritual societies movement.
Islam in Hyderabad, with historical patronizing by the rulers, has a strong Sufi influence, with various moments active in the last two decades. Hyderabad has produced many renowned religious scholars of representing different Islamic sects and trends, including Abul Ala Maududi, Turab-ul-Haq Qadri, and Allamah Rasheed Turabi.Telugu Christians are mostly Protestant. Other religions include Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism.
Andhra Pradesh's GDP for 2011 was approximately 5,67,636 crore, placing it second among the states. The state ranks second in terms of overall Gross State Product among all the states of the Indian Union. In terms of per capita GSDP the state compares very favorably with other large states. In the 2010 list by, there are seven from Andhra Pradesh among the top 100 richest Indians.
Agriculture has been the chief source of income for the state's economy. Andhra Pradesh is an exporter of many agricultural products. Four important rivers of India, the Godavari, Krishna, Penna, and Thungabhadra flow through the state, providing irrigation. Rice, sugarcane, cotton, Chili pepper, mango, and tobacco are the local crops. Recently, crops used for vegetable oil production such as sunflower and peanuts have gained favour. There are many multi-state irrigation projects in development, including Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects and Nagarjuna Sagar Dam.
The service sector of the state accounts for 43% of the gross state domestic product (GSDP) and employs 20% of the work force. Andhra Pradesh economy has registered over 5.5% annual economic growth rate during the last two decades. The state is ranked fifth industrially developed states in India.
Andhra Pradesh ranks second in India in terms of mineral wealth. The state has about one third of India's limestone reserves, estimated at about 30 billion tonnes. The Tumalappalli Uranium mine in Andhra has confirmed 49,000 tonnes of ore and there are indications that it could hold reserves totalling three times its current size, The Times of India quoted Srikumar Banerjee as saying. The mine's proven reserve is enough to support a 8,000 mega watts nuclear power plant for 40 years, the report added. The Krishna Godavari Basin has huge reserves of natural gas and petroleum. The state has a large amount of coal reserves.The state ranks first nationwide in hydro electricity generation, with a national market share of over 11%. Andhra Pradesh has the fourth largest power generating utility in the country, with an installed capacity of around 10,650 MW. The two cheapest sources of thermal power generation – coal and natural gas – are in abundance.
In 2004–2005, Andhra Pradesh was at the second position in the list of top information technology exporting states of India. The IT sector is expanding at a rate of 52.3% every year. The IT exports reached 19,000 crores in 2006–2007, contributed to 14 per cent of total IT exports of the nation and ranked fourth in India. Other key sectors include, Biopharmaceuticals, Power, Automobile, Tourism, Textiles, Retail, Leather, Mining and Religious tourism
Andhra Pradesh has a Vidhan Sabha (legislative assembly, lower house) of 294 seats, and a Vidhan Parishad (legislative council, upper house) of 90 members. 31 members are elected from local bodies, 31 members are elected from the assembly, eight members are elected from teachers, eight members are elected from graduates, and 12 members are nominated by the Governor. In the Parliament of India Andhra Pradesh has 18 in the Rajya Sabha, the Upper House, and 42 in the Lok Sabha, the Lower House.
Andhra Pradesh had a series of governments headed by Indian National Congress (INC) Party until 1982.Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao is the founder of Telugu Desam party and served as the first chief minister from the party. N. Chandrababu Naidu held the record for the longest serving chief minister (1995 to 2004). P. V. Narasimha Rao served as the chief minister of the state from 1971 to 1973, and went on to become the Prime Minister of India in 1991. The first Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh was Neelam Sanjiva Reddy who later served as President of India. The Congress chief ministers of the state are Damodaram Sanjivayya, Kasu Brahmananda Reddy, P. V. Narasimha Rao, Jalagam Vengala Rao, Marri Chenna Reddy, Tanguturi Anjaiah, Bhavanam Venkatarami Reddy, Kotla Vijaya Bhaskara Reddy, Nadendla Bhaskara Rao, Nedurumalli Janardhana Reddy, Y. S. Rajasekhara Reddy, Konijeti Rosaiah and N. Kiran Kumar Reddy.
Until 1962, the CPI, along with socialist parties, played an important role as opposition parties. Parties namely Praja Socialist Party and Krishi Lok Party played important role in 1950's. In the 1967 state assembly elections all socialist parties were eliminated and CPI lost opposition party status. N.G. Ranga's Swatantra Party became the Opposition Party. They also failed to hold control later and became defunct. In 1978 Jalagam Vengal Rao and Kasu Brahmananda Reddy formed the Reddy Congress and contested against INC but lost.
In 1983 the Telugu Desam Party (TDP) won the state elections and N.T. Rama Rao (NTR) became the chief minister of the state for the first time. This broke the long time single party monopoly enjoyed by the INC from 1956 until 1982. A few months after the election, Nadendla Bhaskara Rao usurped power when NTR was away in the United States for medical treatment. After coming back, NTR campaigned for a comeback by demonstrating the support of the majority of the elected MLAs. The governor Thakur Ram Lal was ousted by Indira Gandhi and in his place she appointed Shankar Dayal Sharma. NTR was reinstated as chief minister. Within a month NTR recommended the dissolution of the assembly and called for fresh elections. Gandhi was assassinated on 31 October 1984 by her Sikh bodyguard and Rajiv Gandhi was made Prime Minister by President Giani Zail Singh. In the ensuing elections for Lok Sabha and the AP Assembly, the Telugu Desam Party won in Andhra Pradesh and NTR came back to power.
The 1989 elections ended the rule of NTR, with the INC party returning to power with Marri Chenna Reddy at the helm. He was replaced by Janardhan Reddy in 1990, who was replaced by Kotla Vijaya Bhaskara Reddy in 1992. In 1994, Andhra Pradesh gave a mandate to the Telugu Desam Party again, and NTR became the chief minister again. Nara Chandrababu Naidu, the son-in-law of NTR, usurped power with the backing of a majority of the MLAs. The Telugu Desam Party won both the assembly and Lok Sabha election in 1999 under the leadership of Chandrababu Naidu. There was an assassination attempt on Naidu in 2003 in Tirupathi; he survived the attack. In the ensuing elections the party lost power to a resurgent INC and its allies. Y. S. Rajasekhar Reddy became the Chief Minister.
Y. S. Rajasekhar Reddy became the CM again by fending off the Praja Rajyam Party and a major alliance of TDP, TRS, CPI and CPM. He died on 2 September 2009 in a helicopter crash. Konijeti Rosaiah, a senior statesman and former state finance minister, became the Chief Minister on 3 September 2009. On 24 November 2010, Rosaiah submitted his resignation on the grounds of increased work pressure. Nallari Kiran Kumar Reddy was sworn in as the new Chief Minister on the following day.
Bapu's paintings, Nanduri Venkata Subba Rao's Yenki Paatalu (Songs about a washerwoman called Yenki), mischievous Budugu (a character by Mullapudi), Annamayya's songs, Aavakaaya (a variant of mango pickle in which the kernel of mango is retained), Gongura (a chutney from Roselle plant), Atla Taddi (a seasonal festival predominantly for teenage girls), the banks of river Godavari, and the Dudu basavanna (the ceremonial ox decorated for door-to-door exhibition during the harvest festival Sankranthi) have long defined Telugu culture. In Telangana Region the famous festivals are Bonala Pandaga (Flowers are decorated in a special big round plates with different types), Savarla pandaga or peerula pandaga known as Moharram (made with different types of cloths decoration basically this is Muslims fastival but this is celebrated by Hindus majorly ) The village of Durgi is known for stone craft, producing carvings of idols in soft stone that must be exhibited in the shade because they are prone to weathering. Kalamkari is an ancient textile art form dating back to the Indus Valley Civilization. Andhra Pradesh is famous for doll making. Dolls are made from wood, mud, dry grass, and lightweight metal alloys. Tirupathi is famous for redwood carvings. Kondapalli is famous for mud toys with rich colors. The village of Etikoppaka, located in Visakhapatnam district, produces lacquered toys. Nirmal paintings are expressive and are usually painted over a black background. Story telling in Andhra Pradesh is an art form in itself. Folk dances unique to Andhra Pradesh include Yaksha ganam, Burra katha (usually done by three people, telling stories using three different musical instruments), Jangama kathalu, Hari kathalu, Chekka bajana, Urumula natyam (usually done at festivals, where a group of people dance in circles with loud music), and Ghata natyam (performances done with earthen pots over one's head).
Andhra Pradesh has many museums, the Salar Jung Museum in Hyderabad, which features a varied collection of sculptures, paintings, and religious artifacts, including the Archaeological Museum at Amaravati near Guntur City that features relics of nearby ancient sites, and the Visakha Museum, in Visakhapatnam, which displays the history of the pre-Independence and thotla konda which depicts the age old budhist stupa's and cultural style, Madras Presidency in a rehabilitated Dutch bungalow. Victoria Jubilee Museum in Vijayawada has a good collection of ancient sculptures, paintings, idols, weapons, cutlery and inscriptions. Other ancient sites include dozens of ancient Buddhist stupas in Nagarjunakonda which is now an island in Nagarjuna Sagar, an artificial lake that formed after the construction of Nagarjuna Sagar Dam. The Island has a large museum that houses many Buddhist relics.
Just like in other parts of the country, many festivals are celebrated in Andhra Pradesh, which include Ugadi, Sankranthi, Dasara, Varalakshmi Vratham, Vinayaka Chavithi, Deepavali, Batukamma, Rakhi poornima, Christmas, Sri Rama Navami, Bonalu, Maha Shivaratri, Nagula Chaviti, Holi, Eid ul-Fitr, Eid ul-zuha, Muharram, Milad-un-Nabi etc.
The cuisine of Andhra Pradesh is one of the spiciest of all Indian cuisines. There are many variations based on geographical regions, caste and traditions. Rice is the staple food and is used in a wide varieties of dishes. Typically, rice is boiled and eaten with curry or made into a batter for use in a crepe-like dish called attu (pesarattu is made of a mixture of this batter and mung beans) or dosas, a crepe filled with black beans or lentils. Pickles and chutneys, locally known as thoku and pachadi in Telugu, are popular in Andhra Pradesh; many varieties of pickle and chutney are unique to the state. Chutneys are made from practically every vegetable including tomatoes, brinjals (eggplant), and roselle (Gongura). Avaakaya (mango pickle) is probably the best-known of the Andhra Pradesh pickles. "Hyderabadi biryani," one of the most famous dishes in India, belongs to Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh's state capital); it is prepared with rice mixed with vegetables, pulses or chicken, mutton and fish.
Meat, vegetables and greens are prepared with spices (masala) into a variety of strongly flavored dishes such as Hyderabadi biryani, fish curry, brinjal curry and Gongura pachadi — the most popular dish of the state. The coastal region is even more well versed with the varieties in sea food specially known for Chapala Pulusu, Bommidala pulusu, Koramenu kura. Hyderabadi cuisine is influenced by the Muslims who arrived in Telangana in the 14th century. Much of it is mainly prepared of meat. It is rich and aromatic, with a liberal use of exotic spices and ghee (clarified butter). Lamb, chicken, beef and fish are the most widely used meats.
Classical dance in Andhra can be performed by both men and women; women tend to learn it more often. Kuchipudi is the state's best-known classical dance form. The dance forms that existed through the state's history are Bonalu, Dappu, Chenchu Bhagotham, Kuchipudi, Bhamakalapam, Burrakatha, Veeranatyam, Butta bommalu, Tappeta Gullu, Lambadi, Dhimsa, Kolattam, and Chindu. Jaanapadam theenmar is a popular folk dance.
Jayapa Senani was the first person to write about the dances prevalent in Andhra Pradesh. Both Desi and Margi forms of dances are included in his Sanskrit treatise Nrutya Ratnavali.
Nannayya, Tikkana, and Yerrapragada form the trinity who translated the great Sanskrit epic Mahabharata into Telugu. Pothana is the poet who composed the classic SriMad Maha Bhagavatamu, a Telugu translation of Sri Bhagavatham, authored by Veda Vyasa in Sanskrit. Nannayya (circa 11th century AD), the earliest known Telugu author, was patronized by the king Rajaraja Narendra who ruled from Rajamahendravaram (now Rajahmundry), the cultural capital of Andhra Pradesh. The Vijayanagara emperor Krishnadevaraya wrote Amuktamalyada. The Telugu poet Vemana, a native of Kadapa, is notable for his philosophical poems. Telugu literature after Kandukuri Veeresalingam (1848–1919) is termed modern literature. Known as Gadya Tikkana, Satyavathi Charitam was the author Telugu-language social novel, Satyavathi Charitam. Jnanpith Award winners include Sri Viswanatha Satya Narayana and Dr. C. Narayana Reddy. The Andhra Pradesh native and revolutionary poet Sri Sri brought new forms of expressionism into Telugu literature.
Other modern writers include Gunturu Seshendra Sarma, the only person nominated from India for a Nobel prize in literature since Rabindranath Tagore. The West Bengal government conferred on him the title Rashtrendu ("Moon of the Nation"). Telugu University awarded him an honorary Doctorate in Literature in 1994. He received the Kalidas Samman award from the Madhya Pradhesh government, and he won the Central Sahitya Akademi fellowship in 1999. Puttaparthi Narayanacharyulu is one of the scholarly poets of Telugu literature. He wrote the books Sivatandavam and Panduranga Mahatyam. Other notable writers from Andhra Pradesh include Srirangam Sreenivasarao, Gurram Jashuva, Chinnaya Suri, Viswanatha Satyanarayana.
First film studio of Andhra Pradesh: 1936, Rajahmundry
The Telugu talkie era started with Bakta Prahalada (1931). Andhra was not yet been identified as a competent area for cinema shooting so it was being done in places like Kolhapur, Kolkata Studios. In 1936, Durga CineTone was started in Rajahmundry. It was started by Nidamarti Soorayya whose father Jaladurga Prasad's name was after it. The first talkie film was shot in Andra Pradesh. In those days, there were only three film studios in south India: two in Chennai and Durga Cinetone in Rajahmundry.
In the early 1980s, the Telugu film industry had largely shifted its base to Hyderabad from Madras. The Telugu film culture (or, "Tollywood") is the second-largest film industry in India. Hyderabad houses the Prasads IMAX theatre, which was the biggest 3D IMAX screen in the world when it was built in 2007. It is also home to Ramoji Film City which is the world's largest integrated film studio complex at over 2,000 acres (809 ha) of land.The prolific producer from the state, D. Ramanaidu holds a Guinness Record for the most films produced by a person.
The Sports Authority of Andhra Pradesh, is the governing body which looks after the infrastructure development in Cricket, Field hockey, Association Football, Olympic weightlifting, Chess, Water Sports, Tennis, Badminton, Table Tennis, Cycling etc. Sports like kho kho, kabaddi, chinni daandu and goli (marbles) are played mostly in coastal Andhra and Telangana areas.
One of the most popular sports in Andhra pradesh is cricket. The Hyderabad Cricket Association nurtures potential international players. The Hyderabad cricket team has won the Ranji Trophy twice. The Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium in Hyderabad and ACA-VDCA Stadium in Visakhapatnam, regularly host international matches. The Sunrisers Hyderabad formerly known as Deccan chargers, an Indian Premier League franchise, is based in Hyderabad and Visakhapatnam.
Notable cricketers from Andhra Pradesh, include C. K. Nayudu, Maharajkumar of Vizianagram, M. V. Narasimha Rao, Mohammad Azharuddin, M. S. K. Prasad, V.V.S. Laxman, Tirumalasetti Suman, Arshad Ayub, Ambati Rayudu, Paul Valthaty, Venkatapathy Raju, Sravanthi Naidu, Yalaka Venugopal Rao etc.
Other accomplished sports-persons include, A. Ramana Rao, Karnam Malleswari, Pullela Gopichand, Sania Mirza, Saina Nehwal, Sharath Kamal, Chetan Anand (Badminton), Pradeep (Volley Ball), Mukesh Kumar (Hockey), Abdul Najeeb Qureshi, Jwala Gutta, Raman Subbarao, Kamineni Eswara Rao, etc. Grandmasters in Chess like, Koneru Humpy, Pendyala Harikrishna, Dronavalli Harika and Gogineni Rohit hail from the state.
Many composers of Carnatic music like Annamacharya, Tyagaraja, Kshetrayya, and Bhadrachala Ramadas were of Telugu descent. Modern Carnatic music composers like Ghantasala and Sri M. Balamuralikrishna are also of Telugu descent. The Telugu film industry hosts many music composers and playback singers such as S.P. Balasubrahmanyam, P.Susheela, S. Janaki, P B Srinivas. Telugus have a large number of folk dances. Folk songs are popular in the many rural areas of the state. Forms such as the Burra katha and Poli are still performed today.